MORPHOMETRICAL CHANGES IN THE RATS UTERUS THICKNESS AFTER 30 DAYS OF HEAVY METAL SALTS EXPOSURE
Introduction. Much attention is paid to the global ecological problem of environmental pollution with heavy metals (HM), starting from their production and use and ending with the search for means of their degassing and bioremediation. Particular attention is drawn to the study of the influence of HM on the reproductive system, in particular, the uterus. This is due to the high risk of reproductive ability deterioration and the reflection of the consequences of HM exposure in future generations.
Objective. The objective of our study was to perform morphometric measurement of the structural elements of the uterine wall in female rats under the conditions of 30-day exposure to HM salts, as well as to study the protective role of vitamin E.
Materials and Methods. For the experimental study, 24 female rats were selected and randomly divided into three series (8 rats in each): series I included control rats that received ordinary drinking water; series II included rats that daily consumed water saturated with HM salts; and series III included rats that were administered vitamin E orally every day against the background of constant consumption of water enriched with a combination of HM. After 30 days of the experiment, the uteri were removed; the sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for microscopic examination, followed by morphometric measurement of the structural elements and their statistical analysis.
Results. First, we measured the morphometric dimensions of the structural elements of the uterine wall in the control animals. At the same time, in the animals of the experimental series II and III, the morphometric indicators underwent significant changes. Thus, on the 30th day of the study, series II rats showed a significant thickening of the uterine wall by 31.03% (p < 0.001) vs. the indicators of the control series. A similar trend of morphometric changes in the thickness of the uterus was noted in series III animals, where the uterus thickened by 20.58% (p < 0.001). Moreover, a significant difference was also observed between experimental series II and III. The analysis of the organ structural components in the experimental series indicated the predominance of endometrium thickness over myometrium thickness.
Сonclusions. The results showed that 30-day exposure to HM led to a statistically significant thickening of the uterine wall. At the same time, the most pronounced changes in morphometric indicators were observed in the endometrium (in comparison with the myometrium and perimetrium) of both experimental models, both under the conditions of HM combination exposure and during the prophylactic use of vitamin E against the background of the action of xenobiotics. It is important to note that with the use of vitamin E, the morphometric indicators of the uterine thickness were characterized by a less pronounced transformation of values, although they still significantly exceeded the values of the control series.
2. Witkowska D, Słowik J, Chilicka K. Heavy Metals and Human Health: Possible Exposure Pathways and the Competition for Protein Binding Sites. Molecules. 2021 Oct 7;26(19):6060. doi: 10.3390/molecules26196060.
3. Romaniuk A, Sikora V, Lyndina Y, Lyndin M. [Abundance of heavy metals in the environment and their role in the vital activity of the organism]. Bukovinian Medical Herald. 2017;21(82)p.1:145–50. doi: 10.24061/2413-0737.XXI.184.108.40.2067.35
4. Briffa J, Sinagra E, Blundell R. Heavy metal pollution in the environment and their toxicological effects on humans. Heliyon. 2020;6(9):e04691. doi:10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04691
5. Ali H, Khan E, Ilahi I. Environmental chemistry and ecotoxicology of hazardous heavy metals: environmental persistence, toxicity, and bioaccumulation. Journal of Chemistry. 2019;2019:6730305. doi: 10.1155/2019/6730305.673030510.
6. Romaniuk A, Sikora V, Lyndin M, Smiyanov V, Sikora V, Lyndina Yu, Piddubnyi A, Gyryavenko N, Korobchanska A. The features of morphological changes in the urinary bladder under combined effect of heavy metal salts. Interv. Med. Appl. Sci. 2017;9(2):105–11. doi: 10.1556/1646.9.2017.2.09.
7. Manisalidis I, Stavropoulou E, Stavropoulos A, Bezirtzoglou E. Environmental and Health Impacts of Air Pollution: A Review. Front. Public. Health. 2020;8:14. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2020.00014.
8. Romaniuk A, Sikora V, Lуndіna Yu, Lyndin M, Hyriavenko N, Sikora V, Karpenko L, Piddubnyi A, Miroshnichenko M. Effect of heavy metals on the readaptive processes in the urinary bladder. Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science. 2019;18(1):100–6. doi: 10.3329/bjms.v18i1.39558
9. Romaniuk A, Lyndin M, Lуndіna Y, Sikora V, Hrintsova N, Timakova O, Gudymenko O, Gladchenko O. Changes in the hematopoietic system and blood under the influence of heavy metal salts can be reduced with Vitamin E. Turk. Patoloji. Derg. 2018;34(1):73–81. doi: 10.5146/tjpath.2017.01412.
10. Sikora V. [Evaluation of morphometric status of the urinary bladder mucosa and the level of excessation of microelements with urine by using the mixture of heavy metals]. Reports of Morphology. 2017;23(2):256–9.
11. Wrzecińska M, Kowalczyk A, Cwynar P, Czerniawska-Piątkowska E. Disorders of the Reproductive Health of Cattle as a Response to Exposure to Toxic Metals. Biology (Basel). 2021;10(9):882. doi: 10.3390/biology10090882.
12. Diantini NSE, Soeharto S, Wiyasa WA. The effect of lead acetate administration to the uterine malondialdehyde level and endometrial thickness in albino rats (Rattus novergicus). Med. J. Indones. 2018;27:150–4. doi: 10.13181/mji.v27i3.2031
13. López-Botella A, Velasco I, Acién M, Sáez-Espinosa P, Todolí-Torró JL, Sánchez-Romero R, Gómez-Torres MJ. Impact of Heavy Metals on Human Male Fertility-An Overview. Antioxidants (Basel). 2021;10(9):1473. doi: 10.3390/antiox10091473.
14. Doncova V, Lukacinova A, Benacka R, Nistiar F. Effect of Low-Dose Exposure to Toxic Heavy Metals on The Reproductive Health of Rats A Multigenerational Study. Folia Veterinaria. 2019;63(1):64–71. doi: 10.2478/fv-2019-0010.
15. Lukacinova A, Benacka R, Sedlakova E, Lovasova E, Nistiar F. Multigenerational lifetime low-dose exposure to heavy metals on selected reproductive parameters in rats. J. Environ. Sci. Health. A. Tox. Hazard. Subst. Environ. Eng. 2012;47(9):1280-7. doi: 10.1080/10934529.2012.672132.
16. Höfer N, Diel P, Wittsiepe J, Wilhelm M, Degen GH. Dose- and route-dependent hormonal activity of the metalloestrogen cadmium in the rat uterus. Toxicol. Lett. 2009;191(2-3):123-31. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2009.08.014.
17. Kuzenko YV, Romaniuk AM, Skidanenko MS, Lyndin MS, Sikora VV, Piddubniy AM, Moskalenko RA, Sikora KO, Diachenko OO, Lyndina YuM, Pokotylo VM, Hyriavenko NI, Karpenko LI, Kolomiets OO, Kuzenko OV, inventors. Prystrii dlia histolohichnoho ta histokhimichnoho zabarvlennia preparativ [The device for histological and histochemical staining of samples]. Ukrainian patent, no. 144872, 2020.
18. Nasiadek M, Danilewicz M, Klimczak M, Stragierowicz J, Kilanowicz A. Subchronic Exposure to Cadmium Causes Persistent Changes in the Reproductive System in Female Wistar Rats. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2019:6490820. doi: 10.1155/2019/6490820
19. Nasiadek M, Danilewicz M, Sitarek K, Świątkowska E, Daragó A, Stragierowicz J, Kilanowicz A. The effect of repeated cadmium oral exposure on the level of sex hormones, estrous cyclicity, and endometrium morphometry in female rats. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int. 2018;25(28):28025-28038. doi: 10.1007/s11356-018-2821-5.
20. Meléndez-García N, García-Ibarra F, Bizarro-Nevares P, Rojas-Lemus M, López-Valdez N, González-Villalva A, Ayala-Escobar ME, García-Vázquez F, Fortoul TI. Changes in Ovarian and Uterine Morphology and Estrous Cycle in CD-1 Mice After Vanadium Inhalation. International Journal of Toxicology. 2020;39(1):20-29. doi:10.1177/1091581819894529
21. Massányi P, Massányi M, Madeddu R, Stawarz R, Lukáč N. Effects of Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury on the Structure and Function of Reproductive Organs. Toxics. 2020;8(4):94. doi: 10.3390/toxics8040094
22. Mohammad Hosseini S, Hossein Moshrefi A, Amani R, Vahid Razavimehr S, Hasan Aghajanikhah M, Sokouti Z, Babaei Holari B. Subchronic effects of different doses of Zinc oxide nanoparticle on reproductive organs of female rats: An experimental study. Int. J. Reprod. Biomed. 2019;17(2):107-118. doi: 10.18502/ijrm.v17i2.3988
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.