PARKINSON'S DISEASE — OVERVIEW OF MODERN TREATMENT METHODS
Introduction. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative neurological disease with a slowly progressive course. In particular, it manifests as a movement disorder that includes rest tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability. Movement disorder in patients with PD mainly occurs due to the selective loss of pigmented dopaminergic neurons of the compact area of the substantia nigra, as a result of the depletion of dopamine in the striatum. The pathogenetic feature of this disease is the presence of intraneuronal aggregates and inclusions of α-synuclein. To date, there are no proven treatments for Parkinson's disease, but a number of medications exist offering benefits in terms of controlling movement disorders. Although they can significantly improve motor function, they can also lead to problematic side effects, especially as the disease progresses.
Objective: to analyze the main directions of modern methods of Parkinson's disease treatment and to conduct a profound review and analysis of literature research data on the modern methods of Parkinson's disease treatment over the past 10 years.
Results. It has been established that modern treatment methods are based mainly on exogenous administration of drugs with dopaminergic activity and inhibitors of endogenous dopamine metabolism. Although levodopa has been used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease since its inception, numerous experimental therapeutic and neurosurgical approaches are now being investigated. These include drugs aiming at the inhibition and degradation of α-synuclein aggregation, which is considered the driving force of neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease. They raise expectations that a disease-modifying agent will be discovered in the short-term future. Thus, in combination with a number of regenerative and neurosurgical approaches, including stem cell and gene therapy and deep brain stimulation, significant progress will be made in the treatment of Parkinson's disease in the coming years and a number of new effective options will become available.
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