The aim of the research was to determine the influence of low surface tension water load on the excretory function of kidneys and the urine surface tension compared to induced diuresis by ordinary tap water.
Material and methods of research: In the experiments on 40 white nonlinear male rats weighing 0.16–0.18 kg the effect of low surface tension water load (43 dyn/cm) was studied, which was obtained by treating tap water with coral calcium (Sango Coral, Okinawa, Japan). The excretory function of kidneys was studied under the conditions of water-induced diuresis and low surface tension water loading, for which the fluids in the amount of 5% of body weight were injected into the stomach of rats with the help of a metal probe with further urine collection after 2 hours. Urinary creatinine concentrations were determined based on the reaction with picric acid. Concentrations of sodium and potassium ions were studied by using flame photometry on PFP-1. The concentration of urinary protein was estimated by the method with sulphosalicylic acid. The urine pH as well as the concentrations of titratable acids and ammonia was determined. We calculated the excretion of potassium and sodium ions, protein, titratable acids, ammonia, and ammonium coefficient. The urine surface tension was determined by the Harkinson method of stalagmometric droplet counting, based on the determination of the weight of the droplet which is detached from the capillary due to gravity.
Research results. As a result of the experiments on 40 white nonlinear pubertal male rats with induced diuresis under low surface tension water load (43 dyn/cm) compared to conventional tap water (the surface tension is 73 dyn/cm) a systemic effect was found on inhibition of the surface tension of urine from 75.00±0.000 dynes/cm to 74.05±0.260 dyn/cm (p<0.01), a decrease in the loss of urinary protein from 0/36±0.0074 mg/2h×100g to 0.012±0.0024 mg/2h×100g (p<0.01), sodium ions and the presence of significant interdependencies between the urinary surface tension, the concentrations of sodium ions and urinary protein.
Conclusion. The low surface tension water load (43 dyn/cm) compared to the diuresis induced by ordinary tap water (surface tension 73 of dyn/cm) is characterized by the systemic impact along with the inhibition of the urine surface tension (p<0.01), reduction of urinary protein losses and presence of reliable interdependencies between the urine surface tension, concentrations of sodium ions and urinary protein. Thus, the use of water treated with the Coral-mine preparation may be recommended as a rehabilitation remedy with a view of improving the functional condition of the kidneys both in health and damaged tubules of the nephron.
2. Castner DG, Ratner BD. Biomedical surface science: Foundations to frontiers. Surf. Sci. 2002;500:28–60. doi: 10.1016/S0039-6028(01)01587-4
3. Parent SE, Barua D, Winklbauer R. Mechanics of Fluid-Filled Interstitial Gaps. I. Modeling Gaps in a Compact Tissue. Biophys J. 2017 Aug 22; 113(4): 913–922. doi: 10.1016/j.bpj.2017.06.062
4. Carlström M, Wilcox CS, Arendshorst WJ. Renal Autoregulation in Health and Disease. Physiol. Rev. 2015;95(2):405–511. doi: 10.1152/physrev.00042.2012
5. Manning ML, Foty RA, Steinberg MS, Schoetz EV. Coaction of intercellular adhesion and cortical tension specifies tissue surface tension. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA. 2010;107(28):12517–12522. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1003743107
6. Fathi-Azarbayjani A, Jouyban A. Surface tension in human pathophysiology and its application as a medical diagnostic tool. Bioimpacts. 2015;5(1):29–44. doi: 10.15171/bi.2015.06
7. Pishak VP, Bilookyi VV, Rohovyi YI. Universalnist ushkodzhennia proksymalnoho kanaltsia pry zakhvoriuvanniakh nyrok [Universality of the proximal tubule damage in kidney disease]. Klin. ta eksperym. patol. 2005;4(1):72–76.
8. Naef R, Acree WE. Calculation of the Surface Tension of Ordinary Organic and Ionic Liquids by Means of a Generally Applicable Computer Algorithm Based on the Group-Additivity Method. Molecules. 2018;23(5):1224. doi: 10.3390/molecules23051224.
9. Kairaliyeva T, Aksenenko EV, Mucic N, Makievski AV, Fainerman VB, Miller R. Surface Tension and Adsorption Studies by Drop Profile Analysis Tensiometry. J Surfactants Deterg. 2017;20(6):1225–1241. doi: 10.1007/s11743-017-2016-y
10. Agre P, King LS, Yasui M, Guggino WB, Ottersen OP, Fujiyoshi Y, Engel A, Nielsen S. Aquaporin water channels – from atomic structure to clinical medicine. J. Physiol. 2002;542(1):3–16. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2002.020818
11. Namvar A, Bolhassani A, Khairkhah N, Motevalli F. Physicochemical Properties of Polymers: An Important System to Overcome the Cell Barriers in Gene Transfection. Peptide Science. 2015;103(7):363–375. doi: 10.1002/bip.22638
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.