PREVENTION AND CONTROL MEASURES IN DENTISTRY UNDER COVID-19 CONDITIONS

  • V. P. Litovchenko Bogomolets National Medical University, Kyiv, Ukraine
Keywords: dental care, prevention, coronavirus disease (COVID-19), checklist

Abstract

Introduction. Given the worldwide spread of acute respiratory disease COVID-19, the WHO announcement of a pandemic and unprecedented quarantine restrictions in March 2020, the problem of organizing measures to prevent the emergence and spread of COVID-19 becomes particularly relevant and undergoes significant additions and improvements.

It should be noted that the risk of transmission of coronavirus disease during dental procedures is defined as extremely high, due to close doctor-patient contact, the use of specific equipment (turbine tip, ultrasonic scaler, airflow, etc.), interaction with biological fluids, including saliva and tissues. At the same time, acute conditions in patients require emergency dental care. In such conditions, it is necessary to comply with anti-epidemic measures, use sterilization procedures for all categories of instruments, as well as the introduction of additional convenient and modern measures to prevent cross-contamination in dental institutions, including checklists, questionnaires and so on.

Purpose. Based on the analysis of theoretical and clinical aspects of the problem of asepsis in the face of new challenges, we aimed to develop an author's "case" of standardized checklists to ensure dental care in the spread of SARS-CoV-2.

Methods. Theoretical analysis of literature sources and results of modern research presented in electronic scientific publications included in scientometric databases, such as PubMed, Index Copernicus, Ulrich's Periodicals, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Scopus, Medline, etc.; generalization of knowledge and practical experience gained during training on the basis of the Dental Medical Center of the National Medical University named after O. O. Bogomolets; survey of respondents using Google forms.

Results. In the context of dental care, the features of dangerous infectious diseases (routes of transmission, resistance, etc.) and appropriate preventive measures were analyzed. The clinical aspects of сoronavirus disease (COVID-19) were considered in detail. As additional anti-epidemic measures (control measures), the author's "case" of checklists was presented: "Assessment of urgency of dental care," "Assessment of risks of possible infection with Covid-19" (to be completed before and 24 hours after treatment).

Conclusions. General and specific precautions are crucial for minimizing the spread of COVID-19 coronavirus disease. Additional solutions are important, including a thorough preliminary examination of patients, including the use of the proposed "case" of checklists (77.4% of respondents from 53 practicing dentists noted the relevance of such questionnaires in their practice) and enhanced asepsis, especially if treating patients with confirmed COVID-19 will be necessary. The main preventive measures aim to prevent other infections (HIV, hepatitis, etc.), the risk of transmission of which increases in the dental office.

Author Biography

V. P. Litovchenko, Bogomolets National Medical University, Kyiv, Ukraine

5-th year student of the Faculty of Dentistry

References

1. Moreira LVG, Macedo AG, Cunha AF, Maranhão OBV, Macêdo-Costa MR, Lima KC, Caldas SGFR, Pereira HSG. Microbial contamination of orthodontic appliances made of acrylic resin. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2016;10(27):1051-1055. doi: 10.5897/AJMR2016.7940
2. Sabino-Silva R, Jardim AC, Siqueira WL. Coronavirus COVID-19 impacts to dentistry and potential salivary diagnosis. Clin Oral Invest. 2020;24(4):1619-1621. doi: 10.1007/s00784-020-03248-x PMID: 32078048 PMCID: PMC7088419
3. Azeredo F, Menezes L, Medina-Silva R, Rizzatto S, Garcia G, Revers K. Microbiological analysis of orthodontic pliers. Dental Press J Orthod. 2011;16(3):103-12. doi: 10.1590/S2176-94512011000300013
4. Aithal P, Shetty K., Dinesh M., Amarnath B., Prashanth C., Roopak M. In vitro evaluation of microbial contamination and the disinfecting efficacy of chlorhexidine on orthodontic brackets. Progress in Orthodontics. 2019. doi: 10.1186/s40510-019-0270-4
5. MOZ Ukrainy. Postanova. 19 (2020, May 09) «Pro zatverdzhennya Tymchasovykh rekomendatsiy shchodo organizatsiyi protyepidemichnykh zakhodiv pry nadanni stomatologichnoyi dopomogy na period karantynu u zv`yazku z poshyrennyam koronavirusnoyi khvoroby (COVID-19)». Режим доступу: https://moz.gov.ua/
6. Meng L, Hua F, Bian Z. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Emerging and Future Challenges for Dental and Oral Medicine. Journal of Dental Research. 2020;99(5):481-487. doi: 10.1177/0022034520914246 PMID: 32162995 PMCID: PMC7140973
7. Van Doremalen N, Bushmaker T, Van Morris DH, Holbrook MG, Gamble A, Williamson BN, Tamin A, Harcourt JL, Thornburg NJ, Gerber SI, Lloyd-Smith JO, De Wit E, Munster VJ. Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 as Compared with SARS-CoV-1. Engl. J. Med. 2020;382:1564-1567. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc2004973 PMID: 32182409
8. VOOZ (2020, June 16). Rekomendatsiyi VOOZ dlya naselennya v zv'yazku c poshyrennyam novogo koronavyrusa (2019 nCoV): mify i nevirni uyavlennya. Режим доступу: https://www.who.int/ru/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/advice-for-public/myth-busters
9. Peng X, Xu X, Li Y, Cheng L, Zhou X, Ren B. Transmission routes of 2019-nCoV and controls in dental practice. Int J Oral Sci. 2020;12(1):9. doi: 10.1038/s41368-020-0075-9 PMID: 32127517 PMCID: PMC7054527
10. Dominiak M, Rózyło-Kalinowska I. Gedrange T, Konopka T, Hadzik J, Bednarz W, Matys Jacek, Lella A, Rayad S, Maksymowicz R, Kuźniarski A. COVID-19 and professional dental practice. The Polish Dental Association Working Group recommendations for procedures in dental office during an increased epidemiological risk. Czasopismo stomatologiczne. 2020;73(1):1-10. doi:10.5114/jos.2020.94168
11. Roberts M. Coronavirus symptoms: UK adds loss of smell and taste to list, Health editor, BBC News online, 18 May 2020. Retrieved from: https://www.bbc.com/news/health-52704417
12. Walker J. Decontamination in Hospitals and Healthcare 2nd Edition. Woodhead Publishing, , 2019. 590 р.
13. Peretz D, Supattapone S, Giles K, Vergara J, et al. Inactivation of Prions by Acidic Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate. Journal of virology. 2006:322–331, doi:10.1128/JVI.80.1.322-331.2006
14. Derkinderen P. Could It Be That Neurodegenerative Diseases Are Infectious? Rev Neurol (Paris). 2019;175(7-8):427-430. doi: 10.1016/j.neurol.2019.07.003 PMID: 31358351
Laneve E, Raddato B, Dioguardi M, Gioia GD, Troiano G, Muzio LL. Sterilisation in Dentistry: A Review of the Literature. International Journal of Dentistry. 2019. doi: 10.1155/2019/6507286 PMCID: PMC6350571 PMID: 30774663
Published
2020-09-29
How to Cite
V. P. Litovchenko. (2020). PREVENTION AND CONTROL MEASURES IN DENTISTRY UNDER COVID-19 CONDITIONS. Eastern Ukrainian Medical Journal, 8(3), 276-285. Retrieved from https://eumj.med.sumdu.edu.ua/index.php/journal/article/view/122