BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOMECHANICAL SUBSTANTIATION OF REPARATIVE REGENERATION OF INTERVERTEBRAL DISCS IN PATIENTS WITH DEGENERATIVE DISC DISEASES
Degenerative disc diseases occupy the second place in the overall structure of morbidity with temporary disability. In 40% of patients with spinal osteochondrosis, diseases of the locomotor apparatus and connective tissue cause primary disability. Disc degeneration is a pathological process that is the main cause of low back pain and is observed in the vast majority of people at some point in their lives. The influence of mechanical stress leads to degenerative changes in the tissues of the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disc. Limited transport and low cellular saturation of the discs hinder recovery, make the intervertebral disc particularly vulnerable to injury, and contribute to the appearance of morphological tissue damage associated with the processes of biological aging. The pathological process involves all structural elements of the intervertebral disc. The earliest manifestations of disc degeneration usually occur in the nucleus pulposus, where a reduced content of proteoglycans disrupts mechanical function, which leads to progressive morphological degeneration of the entire intervertebral segment. Existing treatment methods (both surgical and conservative) are not able to adjust the number of cells in the nucleus pulposus and are unable to stop the pathological process in the intervertebral disc. Prevention of degeneration or repair of the intervertebral disc is a potential treatment for lumbar pain syndromes. Cell therapy has become a subject of great interest, as new research reports significant regenerative potential for many cellular sources, including the regeneration of the nucleus pulposus region of the intervertebral disc. The use and implementation of modern cell therapy in practical neurosurgery allows us to approach the problem of intervertebral disc degeneration at a new qualitative level with the use of multipotent cells, biochemical peptides in the reparative processes of the nucleus pulposus, as a possibility of treatment and prevention of vertebrogenic pain syndromes in the future.
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